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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
After many years of procrastinating, I'm about to embark on my first
conversion. I had a choice of cars to convert:

1) my Holden VK Commodore Station Wagon
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holden_VK_Commodore), as the ICE is
clapped out. Advantages are heaps of space for batteries (in engine
bay and under rear floor), vast supply of relatively cheap parts for
repair. Disadvantages is it's a heavy car, and it's auto, so I'd
need to source a manual gearbox (not difficult or expensive, but a
small hassle).
2) my Holden TX Gemini Sedan
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holden_Gemini#TX_.281975.E2.80.931977.29).
Advantages are that it's small and light, and handles well. Engine
bay is remarkably large for such a small car, and the boot is very
deep, so could put batteries in there as well. Disadvantages are
lack of 'firewall' between cabin and boot (the fuel tank is behind
the rear seats, bad design), and has already been stolen once.

In both cases, Registration here in Queensland is significantly lower
for Hybrids/EV's than ICE's, to the point I'd be saving about $600/yr
if I converted the Commodore, and $400/yr if I converted the Gemini
(Registration in Queensland includes Compulsory Third Party
Insurance), a not-insignificant saving.

However, neither car is driven much. I live close enough to work to
ride my bicycle (and my single-gear second bike is also in line for a
conversion) or walk in a pinch, and it takes nearly as long to drive
as ride. So the cost/benefit just isn't there, if one excludes the
threat posed by Peak Oil. So I've procrastinated.

Another opportunity presented itself: My Partners' family is skating
on the edge of solvency. Her mother spends about $60.week in LPG,
mostly for work, but some for her 'ministering' (religion). This is
about half of what she actually earns, but they _need_ that
additional $60/wk. She uses a 4th Generation Ford Falcon
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Falcon_(Australia)#Fourth_generation_.281979.E2.80.931999.29).
My Partner drives a Ford KE Laser
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Laser#Australia). There is also a
Daewoo Lanos in the backyard, parked for no reason other than it was
barely beginning to have issues, and when a early Daewoo starts to
have issues they go downhill pretty quickly.

1) Falcon. Similar to the Commodore, but bigger and squarer. Aero
efficiency would be awful. In regular use.
2) Laser. Similar to the Gemini. In regular use, short trips.
3) Daewoo. Similar to the Gemini. Parked. FWD.

There's little point in converting the Laser, as it doesn't do much
more travelling than my cars. This leaves the Falcon and the
Daewoo. The Falcon is a daily driver, doing a minimum of 18km,
mostly at 100km/h (you basically drive out of the yard and right onto
the highway interchange, and drive off the highway just a kilometre
or two from her work). The size of the Falcon isn't actually needed,
as it's usually a single occupant and doesn't haul much. In any
case, the Daewoo is a hatchback, so can carry just as much.

Everything seems to be pointing to using the Daewoo to replace the
Falcon. It can carry almost as much, can be converted while the
other cars stay on the road, is lighter in weight, and is almost
certainly more aerodynamic. Now for the calculations:

Wanting 50km range to 100% DOD. This allows for the 40-odd
kilometres each day at highway speeds as well for a quick run around
town and a little bit of reserve. On top of that, the car can be
charged twice a day (at home between shifts). The small delta
between useage and range means it might encourage some conservation
and prior planning. If I set up a 50km pack (at 100% DOD), then I
can tell them they've only got 40km range, safe in the knowledge
that, even though they'll push the range as far as they can (within
the limits of their driving habits), they've got an 'emergency
reserve'. If I tell them the pack is 50km but they can only use 40,
they'll use 45 all the time. If the pack is recharged between
shifts, it'll only get 20km taken out of it at a time.
Assuming 300wH/km (conservative estimate), 50km range is some 15,000wH.
Using 60aH cells, that's some 80-odd cells? Which means a nominal
voltage of 256V if in a single string. While that's good to keep the
wire thickness down, there's not many DC controllers that I'm aware
of that can handle that, so maybe better to put them as parallel
strings of 128V each.
I'd like to have Regen, because this family seems to have a genetic
predisposition against driving efficiency. The accelerator is on or
off, as are the brakes, so the concept of using momentum as a
range-extender is not going to cross their minds. Having both fixed
and variable Regen would also be good (set fixed Regen to a certain
amount, and have a dial on the dash to increase the regen on demand).

I've estimated the cost of the battery pack at some AU$6,500 (plus
GST, Duty, BMS, etc), give or take, using prismatic cells. Avoiding
Thundersky if possible, due to their reputation. I would like to use
K2 cells, but that pumps the cost up to some $10k, and I'd still need
a BMS on top, and I'd need all the cells welded together. Once the
cells are all purchased and working they can go in any follow-on
conversion, and they're the largest expense. At $60/week in fuel,
the pack would pay for itself in savings in just over two years (more
like four if you allow for doubling the household electricity use by
some $400/qtr). I'm trying to keep the cost of the conversion down
as much as I can, because my Partners family is skating on the edge
of solvency. They have to change something, and the fuel bill is my
first practical target (I've made other suggestions, and they've all
been dismissed for one reason or another). My Partners father is
also very interested in EV's as he's keen to build one to take to the
track or strip, but he can't afford it, so this is sort of two birds
with one stone, as I can get him on-board in support. I could pay
for the conversion (and probably will stump up the cash initially),
but I've got a house to build, so can't go throwing money
around. Besides which, I'd like to be able to afford my own
conversion in a year or two as well. With luck, I might be able to
increase the size of the pack down the track, and they can get rid of
a second car.

I'd like to use AC equipment. For highway usage the benefit in
extended range is negligible due to the single stop at the end, but
around town it'd be handy. The AC50-1 setup
(http://www.evparts.com/products/street-vehicle/motors--dot/48-to-96-volt-street-vehicle-motors/mt5615.htm)
looks good, but has a 108V limit. This means lowering the pack
voltage some more, which means more parallel strings or fewer, bigger
cells. I'd like to be able to afford some Siemens gear like Victor
sells, but that's out of the price (and performance) range this time around.
With DC, there's the trusty Netgain or ADC motors
(http://www.evworks.com.au/index.php?category=1). There is also the
Kostovs (including that sweet dual Kostov
(http://www.evworks.com.au/index.php?product=MOT-KOS-R20D) that would
make for a great strip car, but is out of the running for this
conversion). Unfortunately, EV-Works doesn't sell controllers over
72V except for the EVnetics (also available from Grassroots for a
thousand dollars cheaper, although EV-Works price may not have been
changed to reflect the higher $Aussie), and that's performance-oriented.
Grassroots also list a 'kit' with a WarP 9" with a Kelly controller
with Regen (http://www.grassrootsev.com/cpacks.htm). I thought
Series-wound motors didn't do regen? In any case, such a kit is over
a thousand dollars cheaper than the AC kit from evparts (and the
evparts kit doesn't include a charger etc).
Of course, there's also BLDC motors. So many choices.

Can any of the regulars here point me in the direction of a
_relativly_ low-cost (I'm under no illusion that a conversion will be
as cheap as just dropping in a replacement carby ICE), or provide
further advice/critisism on what I've written above, or my
calculations? Any help is much appreciated. Cheers.

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Discussion Starter · #2 ·
Douglas A. Stansfield wrote:
>Your conversion will cost you more than keeping the ICE cars running
>as is most likely. My view is that it is worth it to swap over to
>Electric in any way shape and form.

I agree, but almost everyone uses a cost/benefit (even if they are
making it up as they go along), so to get most people onboard, I have
to use language they understand. Even then, I often have debates
where they think everything will be the same price (or lower) in five
years as it is now (Oil, for example).

>I don't know the cars you mentioned but my feeling is you should
>always convert a car that you love.

I'd convert the Gemini (small car, 900kg). They'd convert the Falcon
(big car, 1350-1400kg). In both cases, the cars are older cars, so
maintainence is much more simple, almost agricultural, than a modern vehicle.

>Wait to see what the price of oil with be with the USA's
>"Quantitative Easing" program!!! Close to $90 a barrel last week!!!

Didn't you know? The best way to get out of debt is to take on even
more debt. :D Talk about a ponzi scheme!

gary wrote:
>- it would be better to plan on 80% max DOD.

Yep. 40km is 80%. I think of it like a fuel gauge in an ICE: when
it hits empty, you're not actually empty, but it's _really_ a good
idea to fill up before it gets to that point.

>- sounds like you need more than 50km to 80% DOD.

Possibly, but I can always add more batteries later.

>- the Zillas can take HV input and limit motor voltage, probably
>Soliton and Netgain too?

Pity the Zillas are virtually unavailable (only the 2K with 'all the
fruit' is available). :(
The Soliton looks good (everything included), but is still a bit
pricey. Can't find any customer comments on the Netgains.
In fact, the more I read on the Soliton's, the more attractive they
sound, especially if they release the 'Jr' version.

>- that will have to be an extremely light car to get decent
>performance out of that.

The Daewoo Lanos is 1011kg kerb weight (2,300ish lbs). Sound ok?

>How about 45 X 100ah cells which is about the same price. This
>might be 60 km range to 80%DOD. Keep the clutch for safety.

45*100ah is less capacity than 80*60aH? Price does seem to be linear
with capacity though. Yes, keeping the clutch.

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Discussion Starter · #3 ·
Draffa wrote:

> Douglas A. Stansfield wrote:
>> Your conversion will cost you more than keeping the ICE cars running
>> as is most likely. My view is that it is worth it to swap over to
>> Electric in any way shape and form.
>
> I agree, but almost everyone uses a cost/benefit (even if they are
> making it up as they go along), so to get most people onboard, I have
> to use language they understand. Even then, I often have debates
> where they think everything will be the same price (or lower) in five
> years as it is now (Oil, for example).
>
>> I don't know the cars you mentioned but my feeling is you should
>> always convert a car that you love.
>
> I'd convert the Gemini (small car, 900kg). They'd convert the Falcon
> (big car, 1350-1400kg). In both cases, the cars are older cars, so
> maintainence is much more simple, almost agricultural, than a modern vehicle.
>
>> Wait to see what the price of oil with be with the USA's
>> "Quantitative Easing" program!!! Close to $90 a barrel last week!!!
>
> Didn't you know? The best way to get out of debt is to take on even
> more debt. :D Talk about a ponzi scheme!
>
> gary wrote:
>> - it would be better to plan on 80% max DOD.
>
> Yep. 40km is 80%. I think of it like a fuel gauge in an ICE: when
> it hits empty, you're not actually empty, but it's _really_ a good
> idea to fill up before it gets to that point.
>
>> - sounds like you need more than 50km to 80% DOD.
>
> Possibly, but I can always add more batteries later.
>
>> - the Zillas can take HV input and limit motor voltage, probably
>> Soliton and Netgain too?
>
> Pity the Zillas are virtually unavailable (only the 2K with 'all the
> fruit' is available). :(
> The Soliton looks good (everything included), but is still a bit
> pricey. Can't find any customer comments on the Netgains.

I have the netgain controller. I'm hoping to pick up my cells tomorrow and be up and running in a month or so. After that I'll know how it works...

corbin





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Discussion Starter · #4 ·
> I agree, but almost everyone uses a cost/benefit (even if they are
> making it up as they go along), so to get most people onboard, I have
> to use language they understand. Even then, I often have debates
> where they think everything will be the same price (or lower) in five
> years as it is now (Oil, for example).

Take a look at how the vehicle industry currently markets their product
-- there are ZERO discussion about cost/benefit, payback period, etc.
Even Toyota, GM and Nissan never mention payback period for the Prius,
Volt or the Leaf. The Prius and the Leaf are totally sold on the Green
emotion: the Toyota Prius "Harmony" commercial
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tq4nrmnqY9o ) and the Leaf's Polar Bear
commercial (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNeEVkhTutY). I still
haven't figured out Chevy/GM's angle with "More car than electric".
Seems instead of preaching to the choir, they're totally diss'n 'em!

Take note of the emotional angle of these commercials -- because there's
a reason: even when gas prices were "through the roof" in the US, it
was *always* a better economic decision on a personal level to continue
to drive your paid-off, low-insurance gas guzzler than to go into debt
to purchase a new/used Prius, conversion, etc. Currently driving an EV
does not make pure economic sense *on a personal level*. On a national
economic level it's utterly stupid to be spending a billion dollars a
day on foreign oil just to light it up and burn it to add to global
warming. Whoops, that's a negative emotion there ;-)

Car buying is a TOTALLY emotional sell: do you connect with this car?
Do you love it? Can't you see yourself sitting in the driver's seat...
our family Toyota salesman (yes, for almost 30 years) GIVES us a car
that we're looking at, often over a weekend/for a week (we primarily
shop the used-car Toyota market). It's damn hard to give it back, and
he knows this full well!

You love your classic car?
How would you like to love it MORE?
It won't stink (gas).
It won't suck (gas).
You won't blow your wad at the gas station.
It'll blow the competition off the line (if you want).
Be green in your favorite machine: convert it to a plug-in today!

The problem is that if you go down the rabbit-hole that is the
cost/benefit discussion, there is no equitable way to have the
discussion without an inclusion of mountain topping & holler filling,
buried-alive coal miners (electricity generated by coal) and on the
petrol side the messes in the Gulf of Alaska, Mexico and the oil-war
casualties & collateral damage (aka dead & injured soldiers & civilians)
in Iraq. These topics just aren't fun and they're heavily dependant on
a person's politics. And remember car buying SHOULD be fun (it's a
totally emotional sell).

Of course on the EV-side if you land the big fish (or somebody with a
huge guilt complex) then you better have a windmill/PV installation
business on the side to provide total guilt-free EVing ;-)

EV's ARE more fun. Market that and you'll have more of a chance of
success. That's how the big boys do it, and they seem to know how to
sell some pretty craptacular vehicles. If you find someone that wants
to argue with you rather than go have fun, they ain't buying from you
anyway no matter how convincing your argument is.

If you want, keep a stack of paper with you that has all the research,
etc so that you can hand it to the masterdebater before they get started
so you can continue talking to people that want to have fun.

It's not that these aren't important issues, or that folks should not be
educated about where our electricity and petrol come from and what costs
are incurred. It's that these are not fun issues and they don't move
cars off the lot. If they did, you'd see "the bigs" using this info a
lot more, and they don't.

[email protected]

Drive Electric: Rediscover the joy ride and the Sunday drive.

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Discussion Starter · #5 ·
Remember.....no car PAYS BACK! They always cost you something. The only
way a car pays back is if you get a deal on a "classic car" and resell it
for a profit(rare).

Every car I have ever owned was purchased at one price and then sold
(donated) at a lower cost.

Is that true for an EV? Absolutely but with an EV in most cases, the Motor
and controller and maybe even the batteries can come out and be used in
another conversion.

I'm doing a conversion right now and I am absolutely amazed at how much
dirty, disgusting, oily, greasy, grimy, messy stuff an I.C.E. produces and
how dirty it becomes!

Clean up and get into an EV. Its worth every cent you can spare to get
into EVs and as Matthew said "HAVE FUN!!!"


Sincerely;

Douglas A. Stansfield
President
www.TransAtlanticElectricConversions.com
http://shop.TransAtlanticElectricConversions.com
973-875-6276 (office)
973-670-9208 (cell)
973-440-1619 (fax)

ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCERS






-----Original Message-----
From: [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]] On Behalf
Of Childress, Matthew
Sent: Monday, December 06, 2010 6:27 PM
To: Electric Vehicle Discussion List
Subject: Re: [EVDL] Advice on a conversion

> I agree, but almost everyone uses a cost/benefit (even if they are
> making it up as they go along), so to get most people onboard, I have
> to use language they understand. Even then, I often have debates
> where they think everything will be the same price (or lower) in five
> years as it is now (Oil, for example).

Take a look at how the vehicle industry currently markets their product
-- there are ZERO discussion about cost/benefit, payback period, etc.
Even Toyota, GM and Nissan never mention payback period for the Prius,
Volt or the Leaf. The Prius and the Leaf are totally sold on the Green
emotion: the Toyota Prius "Harmony" commercial
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tq4nrmnqY9o ) and the Leaf's Polar Bear
commercial (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNeEVkhTutY). I still
haven't figured out Chevy/GM's angle with "More car than electric".
Seems instead of preaching to the choir, they're totally diss'n 'em!

Take note of the emotional angle of these commercials -- because there's
a reason: even when gas prices were "through the roof" in the US, it
was *always* a better economic decision on a personal level to continue
to drive your paid-off, low-insurance gas guzzler than to go into debt
to purchase a new/used Prius, conversion, etc. Currently driving an EV
does not make pure economic sense *on a personal level*. On a national
economic level it's utterly stupid to be spending a billion dollars a
day on foreign oil just to light it up and burn it to add to global
warming. Whoops, that's a negative emotion there ;-)

Car buying is a TOTALLY emotional sell: do you connect with this car?
Do you love it? Can't you see yourself sitting in the driver's seat...
our family Toyota salesman (yes, for almost 30 years) GIVES us a car
that we're looking at, often over a weekend/for a week (we primarily
shop the used-car Toyota market). It's damn hard to give it back, and
he knows this full well!

You love your classic car?
How would you like to love it MORE?
It won't stink (gas).
It won't suck (gas).
You won't blow your wad at the gas station.
It'll blow the competition off the line (if you want).
Be green in your favorite machine: convert it to a plug-in today!

The problem is that if you go down the rabbit-hole that is the
cost/benefit discussion, there is no equitable way to have the
discussion without an inclusion of mountain topping & holler filling,
buried-alive coal miners (electricity generated by coal) and on the
petrol side the messes in the Gulf of Alaska, Mexico and the oil-war
casualties & collateral damage (aka dead & injured soldiers & civilians)
in Iraq. These topics just aren't fun and they're heavily dependant on
a person's politics. And remember car buying SHOULD be fun (it's a
totally emotional sell).

Of course on the EV-side if you land the big fish (or somebody with a
huge guilt complex) then you better have a windmill/PV installation
business on the side to provide total guilt-free EVing ;-)

EV's ARE more fun. Market that and you'll have more of a chance of
success. That's how the big boys do it, and they seem to know how to
sell some pretty craptacular vehicles. If you find someone that wants
to argue with you rather than go have fun, they ain't buying from you
anyway no matter how convincing your argument is.

If you want, keep a stack of paper with you that has all the research,
etc so that you can hand it to the masterdebater before they get started
so you can continue talking to people that want to have fun.

It's not that these aren't important issues, or that folks should not be
educated about where our electricity and petrol come from and what costs
are incurred. It's that these are not fun issues and they don't move
cars off the lot. If they did, you'd see "the bigs" using this info a
lot more, and they don't.

[email protected]

Drive Electric: Rediscover the joy ride and the Sunday drive.

_______________________________________________
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Discussion Starter · #6 ·
>Take a look at how the vehicle industry currently markets their product
>-- there are ZERO discussion about cost/benefit, payback period, etc.
>Even Toyota, GM and Nissan never mention payback period for the Prius,
>Volt or the Leaf. The Prius and the Leaf are totally sold on the Green
>emotion: the Toyota Prius "Harmony" commercial
>(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tq4nrmnqY9o ) and the Leaf's Polar Bear
>commercial (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNeEVkhTutY). I still
>haven't figured out Chevy/GM's angle with "More car than electric".
>Seems instead of preaching to the choir, they're totally diss'n 'em!

I know _exactly_ where you're coming from. I've had arguments both
online and IRL that have lasted until anger starts setting in (on one
side or the other). The endless circular arguments. The
calculations (and I hate maths) justifying one position of
another. Pitting 'wants' vs 'needs' and actual use vs implied
use. Pointing out that exponential growth forever is nonsense. On
and on and on.

But that's marketing, and marketing exists only to convince people to
buy something they don't need. The people I tend to debate with
aren't in the market for a Leaf or Volt or iMIEV. They can't afford
one. Ever. They don't want to pay 10% more for wind power instead
of coal, while in the next breath claim they want 'something' done to
help the environment. And they know that they can go buy some old
dunger for $1000 and it'll probably keep running for a year or two,
and when it becomes too much trouble, they can junk it and buy
another one. Why spend $10k on a car when you can spend $1k, they
think. They're not driving it because it's fun, they're driving them
because the cost of CBD living and awful infrastructure planning
(combined with NIMBYs and BANANAs) has driven them 50 or 60
kilometres from their jobs with few if any other transport options.

No, for people in this socio-economic category, fun comes a distant
second to practicality. They don't have the money to buy a new EV,
so it's just not going to happen. Period. My Partners' Father
_wants_ his own version of White Zombie, but he can barely afford to
even think about it, much less build it. Hell, I can't even get my
own Mother to put Solar Hot Water and Solar PV on her roof, or
replace the _four_ upright fridge/freezers with a single chest
version of each, despite the fact she complains endlessly about her
electricity bill. And she _can_ afford it!

Which is why I'm trying to price and build a 'cheap', reliable EV for
my Partners' family. When I say cheap, I don't mean nasty. I'm not
going to put some dodgy little Chinese or Indian knockoff in the car
if it's going to fail inside a year. I can't 'sell' the car to them
based on fun or emotion, I have to do it in a way that shows they
will be materially better off over time. The Daewoo won't be fun
(when are they ever?), but I can make it a benefit to them. I've
convinced them that EV's are the way to go, now I just have to find a
way they can afford it.

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Discussion Starter · #7 ·
Draffa

Even the heavier car is "relatively" light so I wouldn't base it on
that only. What do you need the car to do? Commute to and from work or
carry the whole family? Just make sure the car will do what you need a
car to do. And make sure the car is solid, you don't want to convert a
car just then fix a rusty body or rebuild a weak suspension.

If they both meet your needs, then go with the lighter one. Definitely
better range at almost half the weight. But can it carry the weight of
a pack? With the smaller car you can start with a smaller pack and
lighter duty components. Get the right sized motor, but maybe less
controller to start with. And a used motor can save a lot of money.
You can upgrade everything over time.

Good luck and get going.

Dave Cover

Draffa <[email protected]> wrote:
> Douglas A. Stansfield wrote:
>>Your conversion will cost you more than keeping the ICE cars running
>>as is most likely. My view is that it is worth it to swap over to
>>Electric in any way shape and form.
>
> I agree, but almost everyone uses a cost/benefit (even if they are
> making it up as they go along), so to get most people onboard, I have
> to use language they understand. Even then, I often have debates
> where they think everything will be the same price (or lower) in five
> years as it is now (Oil, for example).
>
>>I don't know the cars you mentioned but my feeling is you should
>>always convert a car that you love.
>
> I'd convert the Gemini (small car, 900kg). They'd convert the Falcon
> (big car, 1350-1400kg). In both cases, the cars are older cars, so
> maintainence is much more simple, almost agricultural, than a modern vehi=
cle.
>
>>Wait to see what the price of oil with be with the USA's
>>"Quantitative Easing" program!!! Close to $90 a barrel last week!!!
>
> Didn't you know? The best way to get out of debt is to take on even
> more debt. :D Talk about a ponzi scheme!
>
> gary wrote:
>>- it would be better to plan on 80% max DOD.
>
> Yep. 40km is 80%. I think of it like a fuel gauge in an ICE: when
> it hits empty, you're not actually empty, but it's _really_ a good
> idea to fill up before it gets to that point.
>
>>- sounds like you need more than 50km to 80% DOD.
>
> Possibly, but I can always add more batteries later.
>
>>- the Zillas can take HV input and limit motor voltage, probably
>>Soliton and Netgain too?
>
> Pity the Zillas are virtually unavailable (only the 2K with 'all the
> fruit' is available). :(
> The Soliton looks good (everything included), but is still a bit
> pricey. Can't find any customer comments on the Netgains.
> In fact, the more I read on the Soliton's, the more attractive they
> sound, especially if they release the 'Jr' version.
>
>>- that will have to be an extremely light car to get decent
>>performance out of that.
>
> The Daewoo Lanos is 1011kg kerb weight (2,300ish lbs). Sound ok?
>
>>How about 45 X 100ah cells which is about the same price. This
>>might be 60 km range to 80%DOD. Keep the clutch for safety.
>
> 45*100ah is less capacity than 80*60aH? Price does seem to be linear
> with capacity though. Yes, keeping the clutch.
>
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Discussion Starter · #8 ·
Hey Draffa,

I hate to be a wet blanket, but I don't think it is a good idea to
convert a car for the inlaws.

If they are struggling to make ends meet, the last thing they need is
a science project for a car - especially if this is going to be your
first EV conversion.

If you make a mistake building it, or they make a mistake using it,
then something very expensive can be damaged or destroyed - most
likely the batteries, but also possibly the controller, charger or
motor - which leaves them with one less car and a rather hefty bill to
get it back on the road.

If you've got the spare cash, convert your car and learn a lot in the
process about how to build and drive EVs. Then swap your car for one
of the inlaws' cars with a detailed set of instructions about how to
drive and care for their new EV.

Also, get in contact with the AEVA guys in Qld.

Mark

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