This page is a database of the state by state and national requirements to get your EV on the road legally in your part of the world. If you have any additional information feel free to add it.
- National: Information Needed...
- Arizona: The car will need to be inspected to ensure that the its standard equipment works (ie. horn, wipers, lights, etc). After the inspection, the registration process can be completed at the DMV. The FUEL field on the title needs to have an X entered. The X indicates NO FUEL. You will be issued a blue license plate with clouds on it, and you will be allowed to drive in the HOV lane when ever you please.
- Arkansas:Must report the conversion to the Director of the Department of Finance and Administration within 10 days of the conversion. An owner or operator who fails to report such a conversion may be subject to a $250 fine.
- California: May be registered as an ICE if make is pre-1975. Post-1975 models must be inspected for smog check exemption.
- Connecticut: CT has EV requirements, but they are not published on their site. I have a scan of the document here. It is NECESSARY to schedule an appointment for inspection with LT Baio (860) 263-5448 - Let the phone ring till someone picks up...It may take a while. One thing not mentioned, is the spec on electrical isolation. CT defines this as <12 volt between your Controller + to Chassis and - to Chassis. My full experience
- Georgia: Georgia code for Dummies (by LexisNexus)- in general it looks like they don't much care as long as it passes inspection. What a great State to live in!
- Massachusetts- I'm in MA, my registration went like this:
I went to the insurance company, got a RMV-3 Form and changed the "Motor Power" of the title from GASOLINE to Electric. Got the insurance company to sign it, then off to the RMV.
Went to the RMV, they took the form, pushed a few buttons, printed out a new Registration and done. My EV is supposedly listed in the database as an electric vehicle, and I should be able to go for my inspection and they will waive the emission testing for it.
- Michigan: I have been informed by a Michigan DMV clerk that there is no difference in the registration of a converted to electric vehicle than there would be had the vehicle not been converted -ruspert.
- New York: All in information is found on the NY DMV website. This link explains how to register a custom-made vehicle, and this link tells how to get it inspected. This is the main registration page. Essentially, You must turn in all required paperwork, including form VS-103. Then the state will ask you to get it inspected for road safety. After inspection is approved, then you can go through standard registration process.
- Oregon: All I had to do in Oregon was change the title and Registration to Electric for fuel type
- Pennsylvania: According to a DMV clerk on a phone call, in PA, EV's fall under the 'street rod' rules. Basically, any modified car must be inspected by an 'enhanced inspection station' and a modified vehicle form MV426B must be sent in to the DMV after inspection. The process takes approx. 4-6 weeks.
- Texas: The car will need to be inspected to ensure that its standard safety equipment works (ie. horn, wipers, lights, etc)(The inspection is only $12 because no sniffer equipment checks). After the inspection, the registration process can be completed at the DMV. The Texas DMV says that there is no difference in the registration of a converted to electric vehicle than there would be if the vehicle had not been converted. Same thing on titling the vehicle, they do not care.
- Utah: EV's need only pass the same safety inspection that ice vehicles do, then be inspected by the Utah State Health departments subsidiary that deals with vehicle emmissions to recieve an emission inspection waiver (they just look under the hood and make sure you don't have an ice then compliment you on your cool ride) 801-313-6727
Address is 788E Woodoak Ln (5380 South). If you aren't in SL county thy will give you the number for your local folks. You are then entitled to an alternative fuel license plate that allows you to drive in the HOV lane on the freeway and park at all SLC meters for free. You are also entitled to a $2500 Utah state tax credit as of 2008.Tax credit link : http://tax.utah.gov/forms/current/tc-40v.pdf
- a few points on motor and battery mounting http://www.saaq.gouv.qc.ca/publications/dossiers_speciaux/veh_modif_artisan.pdf
- Look at the bottom of the above link under "Vehicle Description Changes". You can change your "Fuel Type (Power)" to 'E' for free and (typically) without additional documentation at any Licence Issuing Office. The form required for this is not filled out by you, rather the person behind the desk.
- Some offices may easily be confused if you direcly ask to change your fuel type to electric. It may be nessesary to remind them that it is the same form as changing paint colour.
- (This information is valid for Ontario as of November 2009, however there are planns for changes including a green licence plate option for EVs for 2010, therefor this procedure may not last)
- Light vehicles (under 3500kg GVM) converted to EVs need to be certified to the standards of the Low Volume Vehicle Technical Association. The standard for EV conversions is here:
- For 98 year make and later the general rule is you can't modify it! All parts replaced must have the same specs or you need a guarantee from the car manufacturer that your car will still stay within the exhaust specifications (which they won't give you, simple as that). This is a result of overzealous exhaust rules, but thankfully EV's uses the loop hole of not having any exhaust. However, you still have to comply to the following rules (note that these are per individual car, you can't refer to a more beefed up turbo version if your car isn't one of them):
- The motor can not have more than +20% horse powers than the original engine.
- The motor can not have more than +10% torque than the original engine.
- The total weight of the car can not exceed maximum registered weight, and that has to include driver, passenger, cargo etc.
- The axis maximum weight can not be exceeded.
- If the car has power steering, power brakes, ABS etc they must work! Period.
- Pre -98 has other rules. I'll see if I can dig them up some day. /Qer
- All vehicles on the road must comply with:
- Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations 1986 (as amended) - amendments can be found at http://www.opsi.gov.uk but 1986 regs not available online (I'll try to hunt them down)
- Road Vehicle Lighting Regulations 1989 - http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1989/Uksi_19891796_en_1.htm
- If the vehicle is already registered, then there is no need for further testing, apart from an MoT if necessary.
- If converting a new vehicle prior to registration, or are wanting to change the taxation class of the vehicle, it will need to be approved under:
- the Single Vehicle Approval scheme - http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1996/Uksi_19963013_en_1.htm and amendments
- The car has to comply with the regulations that were in force the first time it was registered. Be aware that this general rule does not apply, if a car is significantly altered! In this case, it has to comply with the latest regulations. But, according to the chief expert at the STVA in Zurich, replacing the vehicle's combustion heart with an electric one is not considered significant (sic!). This interpretation may change however, so be sure to check with your local STVA before you start your conversion. The current regulations and ammendments (VTS - Verordnung vom 19. Juni 1995 über die technische Anforderungen an Strassenfahrzeuge) can be found here http://www.admin.ch/ch/d/sr/c741_41.html.
- The motor cannot have more than 120% KW of the original engine. For an electric motor the relevant figure is the continuous/rated power
- No regulations regarding torque.
- Your EV needs enough power to start up a hill. Keeping the handbrake might be a good idea.
- The total weight of the EV cannot exceed the guaranteed weight. If no guaranteed weight is given by the manufacturer, it may not exceed the maximum registered weight. If you want / need to exceed that limit, your EV has to be tested by the DTC (Dynamic Test Center - http://www.dtc-ag.ch). I don't know yet, what kind of test they do (and what they charge for them) - I just hope it's not as gruelling as what they did with poor Santa (see this link http://www.dtc-ag.ch/typo3/fileadmin/download/publicat/DTC-Xmas09.avi).
- If the car has power steering, power brakes, ABS etc. they must work.
- Be careful, if you change the suspension (even if you do this to get the same height as before the conversion). This will be examined - it may be worth having an expert doing this for you.
- Defrosting the windshield is mandatory.
- You do not need to keep the 12V battery. But parking lights etc. have to be working of course.
- Regenerative braking is allowed.
- No regulations on instrumentation other than they have to indicate speed (in km/h) within the defined tolerances.
- If the donor is registered as a veteran, it will lose this status (means you'll have to have your car inspected every two years, instead of six year intervals).
- If you build the car for personal use only, then the NEV (Verodnung vom 9. April 1997 über elektrische Niederspannungserzeugnisse) does not apply, i.e. you do not need to test your car's electromagnetic safety. Be aware, that if you sell (or even donate) your EV then you or the new owner needs to prove conformity with NEV.
- No regulations on electric safety. As the chief expert has put it: "We may put a radio next to the running vehicle. If radio reception is still good, then it's o.k. with us". Also: No "Emergency Power Disconnect Button" needed, no regulations about battery casings, no regulations about charging (like a device that prevents you from driving away, as long as your EV is still connected to the grid).
- Since April 2010, chip tuning is no longer allowed. This means that you may not change the settings of you controller (if they increase performance), once you have successfully registered you EV. The solution proposed by STVA is to set your controller settings as aggressively as possible and legal for registration, since it is no problem to reduce performance later on. This however requires intensive street-testing before registration, which you are not allowed to do, since your car is not registered. To overcome this, best band together with a garage and get a dealer license plate (Händlernummer) from them, which allows you then to do real test-drives on the road.
- Additional information, with links to further laws and regulations can also be found here http://www.stva.zh.ch/internet/ds/stva/de/dienstleistungen/technik.html
- In general it is a good idea to contact you local STVA, once you have all the specs of your future EV ready and know, what you want/need to modify. They will then examine your plans and might point out potential conflicts. This may cost a bit, but is IMHO money well invested. /mko